#1. Indian Administrative System – History & Evolution
Indian administrative system has its roots from ancient administrative system it has evolved in three phases
- In ancient India, the study of administration starts with work of Kautilya.
- Kautilya’s Arthashashtra is major source of information about the administrative system of ancient India
- Mughals also had an efficient administrative system.
- They worked in centralization of system
- The present system has its roots from British administrative system.
- Indian administrative system adopted features like the parliamentary system, judicial system, rule of law from British administrative system.
#2. About Indian Administrative System
- India is a democratic country with various diversities.
- The Indian government is federal so there is a clear separation of powers and subjects between union government and state government.
- 7th schedule of constitution allocates the power and functions between Centre and states. It contains 3 lists –
Union List – List 1 contains 100 items. Parliament has exclusive power to legislate on this subject.
State List – List 2 contains 61 items.
Concurrent List – List 3 contains 52 items. Union government along with state has the power to legislate on this subject.
- Some states have given special provisions under article 371.
- Special status has been given to Jammu and Kashmir under article 370.
- At the district level administration by constitutional amendment act 73 and 74, Panchayat and urban local bodies are added.
#3. Indian Administrative System – Structure
Given below is political and administrative organizational structure of The Union & States:
Council of Minister
Parliament & Supreme Court
Council of Ministers
Legislature & High Courts
#4. Functions of Indian Administrative Systems
- Indian administration is accountable to the people of India.
- The main function is to act in accordance with objectives laid down in Preamble of the constitution, DPSP, FR.
- To secure all its citizens’ liberty, equality and fraternity.
- To work for socio economic welfare of society
- To formulate and implement the projects for the economic development
- Work for government instead for the political party in power
#5. Features of Indian Administrative System
- Democratic decentralization
- Federal structure
- Welfare administration
- Making and modifying policies from time to time.
- No involvement in political activities
- Development administration
- Provisions of reservation in services for SC, ST, and other backward classes
- Provision of administrative tribunal
- Transparency in administration
- Citizen friendly
- E- governance
- Independent administrative agencies such as – UPSC, CAG, CVC, Election commission, Finance commission
#6. Issues in Indian Administrative System
- Red Tapism
- Improper management of internal structure
- Inefficient implantation of policies
- Lack Accountability and transparency
- Local governance is weakly empowered
- Political interference allows nepotism in administration
#7. Reform Committees in Indian Administrative System
To bring the reforms in the administrative system a committee was formed to present the report on the administrative reforms.
- First Administrative reforms commission was chaired by Morarji Desai and later on Hanumanthaia.
- It gives recommendations on
- Fifth central pay commission
- Suggested reforms to fight against corruption
- Reforms in civil services
- Suggested introduction of performance budgeting
- Second Administrative reforms commission was constituted on 31 August 2005 under the chairmanship of Veerappa Moily.
- In second ARC report, recommendations suggested for state and district administrations are as follows
- Creation of District Council with a representation of rural and urban bodies as the true third tier of government.
- Autonomy of Panchayat in respect to personnel
- Establishment of ombudsman at local levels
- Metropolitan Police Authorities should be constituted in large cities.
- Agencification, for conducting a wide range of functions
- There is a need for a right balance between autonomy and accountability while designing the institutional framework of executive agencies.
- Internal Restructuring of the State Secretariat
- In order to address the genuine and legitimate concerns of the local people, there is need to continue the political dialogue among various stakeholders.
- Process Re-engineering and use of Information Technology
- In case of North east districts, Autonomous Districts/Councils in Sixth Schedule Areas should also be covered by the StateFinance Commission and the State Election Commission.
- There should be prudent and realistic economic assumptions in the formulation of budget estimates.
- An environment for a responsive and citizen friendly district administration in line with the principles of decentralization and subsidiarity.
- The laws regarding the Lokayukta would need to be amended to incorporate the changes suggested in the Report on `Ethics in Governance’.
- Separate Focus on Policy Making and Implementation
- There should be a separate Standing Committee of the State Legislature for the local Bodies